This study will provide an analysis on the trends and characteristics of trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants in Libya assessing the involvement and influence of transnational organized groups with connections to intermediaries in the major countries of origin, transit and destination of migrants. The objective is acquiring knowledge on the profile of traffickers and smugglers and understanding their modus operandi in country (a), the vulnerabilities of (potential) victims of trafficking exacerbated by prolonged conflict (b), and how to address eventual legal, policy and institutional gaps to respond to these challenges promoting regional and international cooperation (c). This will contribute to support the government of Libya to dismantle transnational organized criminal networks.
Within the framework of the UNTOC and the two protocols on human trafficking and migrants smuggling and the Convention on the Rights of the Child and two Optional Protocols to the Convention, on involvement of children in armed conflict and on sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. This study will include quantitative and qualitative data analysis on Libyans and migrants exposed to the risks of exploitation including: prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation (1), forced labour or services (2), slavery or practices similar to slavery (3) and servitude or the removal of organs (4).
The research will dedicate a special focus on children and youth as (potential) victims of trafficking and on gender-based risks and challenges to promote youth and women empowerment.
Scope of work
The study presents data on the presence and influence of transnational organized groups with connections to intermediaries in the major countries of origin, transit and destination of migrants and trends and dynamics of trafficking and smuggling in Libya.
Key questions include, but are not limited to:
Profile of traffickers and smugglers and understanding their modus operandi in country
• What are the profiles of traffickers and smugglers in Libya?
• What is their social / economic / cultural background? And their nationality and city of origin / habitual residence? How many years are they dedicating to this type of business and what is the estimation of income?
• What is their status in Libya (regular or irregular presence)?
• Are they connected to intermediaries in the most countries of origin of migrants? Do they have links with smugglers/ traffickers in countries of origin, transit and destination? How do they get in touch with migrants? How much money are migrants paying for smuggling? How the payment modalities and transactions are done? (electronic payments – in cash - through a third party)
• What is the role of women and children and youth in trafficking dynamics? What is the percentage of them engaging in this type of business?
The vulnerabilities of (potential) victims of trafficking
• What is the most prominent aspect of exploitation among the four types of exploitation (sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery, organ removal) in Libya? Are specific nationalities/gender vulnerable to specific types of exploitation? Are there any specific hubs/ roads where these abuses occur? What are the available options for migrants to escape exploitations?
• Are Libyans exposed to the risk of exploitation? What is their degree of awareness about it?
• What are the main countries of origin of migrants more vulnerable to the risk of exploitation? What are the paths taken by specific nationalities? Are there vulnerabilities specifically linked with their nationalities?
• Are these migrants aware about the risks of smuggling and trafficking prior to arrival to Libya? Why migrants decide to pay a smuggler/trafficker and how they get the information/contact details of the relevant persons?
• What is the proportions of children and youth (Libyans and migrants) among potential victims? Are they exposed more to particular forms of exploitation rather than others? What are their profiles (sex, age, nationality i.e. trends of trafficking in children)? Did they initiate their journey with their families or were they separated during the migratory path? Are their families aware of their situation and do they have the opportunity of keeping in touch with their families? What is the nature of the families’ interactions with the smugglers and traffickers?
• What are the gender-based-risks and challenges of engaging with this type of criminal network?
• What could be potential incentives to determine persons involved in trafficking and smuggling to move away from this activity and adopt a legal way of living?
• What are the factors that make people more or less vulnerable?
• What are the systemic factors that are available to help victims or potential victims?
Rehabilitation and Reintegration
• What are the coping mechanisms following trafficking, including risks of re-trafficking, as well as stigma issues and other discrimination following trafficking (particularly in the case of sexual exploitation)?
How to address eventual legal, policy and institutional gaps to respond to these challenges including the promotion of international cooperation:
• Policy framework
• Laws and regulations
• Institutional framework
• Formal and informal prevention, response and rehabilitation mechanisms for victims/survivors
• Identification of challenges
• International cooperation
Research methodology is carried out through:
• Literature and desk review, including review of existing data, statistics, reports and documents, legal literature.
• Review of UNODC, UNICEF and IOM policy documents and publications on transnational organized crimes, human trafficking and migrants smuggling
• In close coordination with UNODC, UNICEF and IOM and prior to the data collection phase, development of a Code of Conduct for all researchers/data collectors (CoC) and a Research Protection Protocol (RPP) that clearly identifies research methodologies with particularly vulnerable groups (including children and youth), including training materials for data collectors, interview guides and interview procedures for interviewing children and youth, as well as referral mechanisms in case of vulnerability and distress. These documents will be designed and based on the existing procedures currently used by the commissioning agencies for the protection screening and internal / inter-agency referrals in case of vulnerable cases (children and youth with protection concerns,1 victims of violence, exploitation and abuse2 and victims of trafficking).3 Both CoC and RPP will include a respondent’s (or caregiver/guardian’s in case of children and youths) informed consent on the actual and potential use of non-identifying data for research purposes.
• Survey approach (questionnaire, structured or semi-structured interviews, field missions to Libya, focus groups and Key Informants Interviews - KII)
• Compilation of observations and analysis of collected data and information
• Validation meeting for the preliminary report with key national, regional and international stakeholders
• Preparation of a final report, with presentation of analysed data, information and narrative, including a power point presentation
The final report shall consist of following sections:
• Executive summary
• Profile of traffickers and smugglers and understanding their modus operandi in Libya
• The vulnerabilities of (potential) victims of trafficking including specific focus on gender/ children and youth / nationalities
• Policies, legislation and institutions involved in the response to trafficking and smuggling of migrants in Libya, including formal and informal prevention, response and rehabilitation mechanisms and services for victims and survivors
• Regional and International cooperation
• Key findings and recommendations to pave the way for evidence-based policy development
• Annexes (definitions, sources statistics, legislation in action, references)
1 This consists of a case summary, identified needs and observation, including the referral for specialized services in 8 preidentified cases of “acute red flags”.
2 This includes a screening consisting of 25 questions for vulnerability in country and 7 questions in the household.
3 This includes a screening consisting of a set of 32 questions.
Dates and Details of Deliverables
Literature review and Methodological note including training materials and a Code of Conduct (CoC) and a Research Protection Protocol (RPP)
Field study in Libya
Preliminary report including an initial report of the field interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, as well as the legal and institutional analysis.
Validation meeting with key stakeholders
Final report and PowerPoint presentation that meet the above-mentioned objectives and includes recommendations to the authorities and legislators, with a view to strengthening the Libyan institutional response to the fight against human trafficking, and its compliance with international standards
Indicators of the performance evaluation of the consultancy:
All the outputs should be submitted in English and meet the satisfaction of UNODC and IOM according to the following indicators:
• Quality of the study conducted;
• Conformity of the study with UNTOC and the two protocols on trafficking in person and smuggling of migrants, CRC and the two Optional Protocols to the Convention, on involvement of children in armed conflict and on sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. and relevant international instruments;
• Technical competence;
• Timeliness of the delivery.
Key deliverables and delivery schedule
Expected outputs to be produced by the contractor are also:
Inception report including sampling strategy; questionnaire/tools for quantitative and qualitative data collection; methodology and timeline for data collection and analysis.
Draft report (structure to be agreed jointly by IOM and contractor) containing statistical analysis of quantitative data, supported by analysis of qualitative data.
Final report, incorporating IOM feedback.
All raw data (quantitative and qualitative) needs to be submitted to IOM Libya.
A team composed of qualified researchers with advanced university degrees in quantitative and qualitative research methods, economics, and/or development studies, or other relevant disciplines.
Good knowledge of the migration, socioeconomic and political dynamics of Libya.
Experience in social cohesion promotion programming and/or research in the Libyan context.
At least five years of experience in quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis.
Excellent report writing skills, and ability to meet deadlines.
Previous experience in publishing peer reviewed research would be an advantage.