Introduction and Study Background
Action Against Hunger Cambodia has been implementing the Community-Oriented Multisector Mechanism On Nutrition (COMMON) project since January 2017. This project aims to reduce malnutrition rates of children under 5 years of age in the target area of Preah Vihear province and improve the nutritional resilience of 3,085 households. One of the four sectoral components of the project is to improve hygiene, sanitation and sustainable water resources management of beneficiaries/communities in 22 villages in Preah Vihear province. To achieve this, the COMMON project used a WASH social marketing approach at community level to promote household investment in three key products: latrines, water filters, and rainwater collection kits. This approach sensitized community members to and promoted investment in the products via Care Group sessions, door-to-door sales, and frequent community-based group trainings on sanitation and hygiene practices led by community WASH trainers. The project team also engaged several local business owners (LBOs) to adapt/design these products to the local context in order to stimulate a local supply chain and reliable retail market. To date, over 1,000 households have invested in at least one of these products in the 22 target villages.
A feature of the approach is the creation of saving groups that were formed with beneficiaries who save for the purpose of purchasing a latrine. Each month a savings group member receives the group savings to purchase a household latrine. The project has facilitated creation of 37 groups to date. The COMMON project will be ending in February 2020, and Action Against Hunger aims to document the WASH social marketing approach, its successes, learnings, and recommendations for a final learning paper that can be shared externally with stakeholders and practitioners.
Study Objectives and research questions
The primary objective of the learning assessment is to produce an evidence-based paper that will document the WASH social marketing approach used in the COMMON project, obstacles that have risen, and learnings/recommendations from the approach. More specifically to:
To describe the social marketing approach for all WASH products promoted under the COMMON project, the various challenges faced during the implementation and the strategies implemented to adapt to new situations and overcome challenges.
To analyze factors associated with having purchased a latrine in order to better understand demand, including demographic factors, affordability and equity, household WASH conditions and sanitation practices, social norms and peer pressure, household decision-making over competing priorities, perceived risk of disease and perceived benefits, the product attributes, and the marketing strategy used (saving group, door-to-door).
To identify good practices in the approach delivery and key skills/profiles needed for those delivering these approaches that contributed to the success of this project component (WASH trainers, local business owners, community asset promoters).
Capture beneficiaries and stakeholders’ thoughts regarding the social marketing approach.
Research Methodology and Scope
The learning assessment will require a mixed methods approach as detailed by each objective below (scope of data collection and sampling frame is estimated below but will be detailed by the consultant and validated by the Action Against Hunger team).
The consultant is expected to conduct all field research in local language (Khmer), perform data and statistical analysis, and draft the final learning paper, to be submitted in English.
Specific objective 1: document the social marketing approach (all WASH products promoted) and identify key successes, learnings, and recommendations for improvement.
- Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with COMMON project team, local authorities and local business owners engaged in the project. 10-15 KIIs are anticipated.
- Focus Group Discussions with WASH trainers, Care Group Leaders, beneficiaries. 5-10 FGDs are anticipated.
Specific objective 2: analyze factors that influenced latrine purchase (latrine only)
Case-control study: a survey will be conducted among households who purchased a latrine (‘cases’), as well as among controls who did not purchase a latrine. Cases will be randomly selected. A strategy for selecting controls, including matching with cases, will be developed by the consultant. Results will need to be analyzed using statistical software to identify which factors are significant and which aren’t.
Specific objective 3: Identify good practices, key skills and knowledge needed of project staff and community facilitators for successful delivery of approach.
- Focus group discussions with beneficiaries’, WASH trainers, community leaders, in addition to FGDs under SO1 as needed.
- KIIs with project staff (can be combined with KIIs for objective 1).
Expected Deliverables and Timeline of Study:
All research design activities and field data collection will take place in December 2019 with the final learning paper to be submitted by February 15, 2020. The consultant will work in collaboration with Action Against Hunger’s MEAL Manager, Senior WASH Technical Adviser, and COMMON project manager throughout this assignment.
Key Qualifications for Consultant/Research Team:
- Experience managing and conducting qualitative and quantitative research in developing-country contexts with the aim to produce applied learning reports
- Experience conducting research or managing projects in the field of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), experience in the field of sanitation marketing highly preferred
- Demonstrated ability in data and statistical analysis methods; experience conducting case-control studies, barrier analyses or similar
- Experience training and managing team of enumerators/data collectors in a field-based setting with excellent understanding of data quality control procedures
- Consultant should be fluent in written and spoken English; ability to speak Khmer preferred