International Consultancy to Support the Development of the Multi-Annual Country Programme for Sudan on “Sustainable Socio-Economic Integration of Refugees and IDPs in Host Communities”
Sudan is host to a large population of newly arrived and long-term refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants. It is also a country of origin for migrants and asylum-seekers because of conflict and insecurity, as well as high poverty levels. Sudan hosts around 1.1 million refugees and asylum-seekers and the government estimates that the number could be as high as 2 million, with the added complexity of secondary migration onwards from Sudan towards Europe as the country stands at the crossroads of the Horn of Africa’s complex migration route. The conflict that broke out in South Sudan in December 2013 displaced hundreds of thousands of civilians in South Sudan and continues to cause an outflow of refugees into neighbouring countries. South Sudanese refugees are the largest refugee group in Sudan. Approximately 78 per cent of all refugees in Sudan are women and children.
The Government of Sudan has hosted refugees for the past 50 years and has a long tradition of hospitality. In East Sudan, Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees have been hosted for decades. Sudan is a state party to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, as well as the 1969 OAU Refugee Convention (with a reservation in relation to Article 26 on freedom of movement). In 2014, Sudan adopted the Asylum (Organization) Act, replacing the previous Regulation of Asylum Act, 1974. The new Act contains several positive aspects, including the recognition of the three durable solutions of voluntary repatriation, local integration and third country resettlement. Sudan also considers Arab/Islamic asylum-seekers and refugees, ‘brothers and sisters’ – Egyptian, Syrian, Yemeni, Iraqi and Palestinian nationals – and they are allowed to remain in the country and are notionally treated as nationals with respect to social services. An estimated 77 per cent of South Sudanese refugees are living outside of 11 established camps, in self-settlements that are largely integrated within Sudanese villages and towns. Many out-of-camp settlements are in areas not covered by humanitarian response, where partners and resources are extremely limited, with minimal public infrastructure. Refugees in these areas therefore face discrimination with respect to access to basic services.
There are now windows of opportunity for peace and development for forcibly displaced persons and host communities. Humanitarian action alone cannot build the resilience of communities and lay the foundations for solutions. Development, peace and security approaches also have fundamental roles to play. Recent developments in Sudan have created the potential for renewed international engagement to support peace and development, including the lifting of comprehensive sanctions on Sudan by the United States in October 2017. In addition, during the Regional Conference on Refugee Education in IGAD Member States in December 2017, the Government committed to integrate education for refugees and returnees into National Education Sector Plans, as well as to recognize the educational qualifications of refugees and returnees across the IGAD region. Subsequently, refugee education has been incorporated into Sudan’s National Education Sector Strategic Plan (2018-2022). Sudan also participated in the IGAD Conference on Jobs, Livelihoods and Self-Reliance for Refugees, Returnees and Host Communities in the IGAD Region held in Kampala, Uganda, March 2019. Alongside IGAD member States, Sudan signed up to the Kampala Declaration emerging from this conference that focuses on advancing livelihood opportunities and economic inclusion to improve self-reliance of refugees, returnees and host communities.
Nevertheless, despite these milestones, Sudan faces complex constraints both within its own political economy and in its relations with the international community that could pose challenges for any new programming. For instance, Sudan’s continued designation as a state sponsor of terrorism by the USA is one factor that precludes its access to international transactions and International Finance Institutions (IFI) instruments. Sudan remains highly-indebted in external arrears and has been in non-accrual status with the World Bank Group since 1994. This prevents Sudan from accessing support from multilateral funding institutions, such as the World Bank’s IDA18 facility, which limits the possibility of leveraging development funding for assistance to refugees as well as supporting host communities and local infrastructure. Since early 2018, Sudan has been experiencing an acute economic crisis, characterized by extreme inflation (63 per cent per annum) and shortages of basic commodities due to the inability of the Government to subsidize the imports of fuel, food, and pharmaceuticals, caused by the drastic depletion of the country’s foreign exchange reserves. In Sudan, only 1 per cent of refugees can afford the local food basket, and the crisis worsened the situation for refugees, especially those living in out-of-camp areas. More recently, this situation has resulted in increased civil unrest across the country.
Partnership for Improving Prospects
In response to this context and with the generous support and engagement of the Government of the Netherlands, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank are developing a joint and fully integrated approach to respond to the forced displacement situation in Sudan under the global title: “Partnership for Improving Prospects”.
The situation of refugees and host communities in Sudan is complex but not without hope. Although Sudan is not a Comprehensive Refugee Response Plan (CRRF) pilot country, the Government has been aligned with parts of the CRRF approach, for example, in terms of self-reliance, allocation of land for refugees in Eastern Sudan, out-of-camp approach for South Sudanese refugees. Building on these positive policies towards refugee asylum, UNICEF, UNHCR, World Bank, ILO and the Government of the Netherlands will work closely with the Government to adopt progressive policies for alternatives to camps, freedom of movement, access to work and access to public services for refugees and asylum-seekers, enhancing Sudan’s capacity to adopt the CRRF in future. Moreover, where policy meets practice, there is a clear gap in supporting the empowerment, skills building and linking to the markets, especially for adolescent and youth populations, that could be transformative and catalytic to enhance the resilience and self-reliance of refugees and host communities.
To this end and as a first step in this process, the partners in Sudan have developed a strategic joint Country Vision Note: “Inclusive Jobs and Education for Forcibly Displaced Persons and affected Host Communities”. This will be followed by the development and design of a Multi-Annual Joint Country Programme (MACP), built on the basis of the Country Vision Note in line with Results-Based Management (RBM) principles. The MACP will be developed between September 2019 and March 2020 in order to be submitted to the Embassy of the Netherlands in Sudan by 1 March 2020.
Scope of work
Under the leadership of the Partners, the consultant will facilitate the development of the MACP for Sudan, building on relevant Partner inputs, with specific attention to results-based management principles and approaches. The deliverables to be submitted are as follows:
Theory of change;
Joint results framework and narrative on proposed activities;
Approximate budget and principal activities for the 4 year programme (including 2019-2020 budget that has already been established and approved to ensure coherence and consistency);
The MACP should be in alignment with the UNDAF, national development plan, various sectoral strategies and other key national development strategies. The consultant will coordinate the planning, consultations and drafting of the programme documents and ensure timely and quality inputs on programme design from the involved agencies (UNHCR, UNICEF, IFC, ILO and World Bank), the donor (Embassy of the Netherlands), government, private sector, social partners, beneficiary groups (including from among the refugee, IDP and host community populations) and other stakeholders as relevant.
The programme design should be in line with the Global Vision Strategy, the Country Vision Note, the 2019 Call for Funds and the M&E framework to be developed by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and should be informed through regular consultations and communications with the relevant stakeholders.
In terms of the tasks and activities to be carried out by the consultant:
The consultant will be located in Khartoum for the duration of the contract. It is also anticipated that travel will be required to the field, in particular the geographical intervention areas of the programme (East Darfur and West Kordofan).
A secondary desk review of existing and relevant research and assessments and activities will be essential to ensure coherence and integration with other relevant humanitarian and development programmes and activities, including those of national bodies.
The consultant will support the programme governance structures, including the Embassy of the Netherlands, UNICEF, UNHCR, ILO, WB and IFC, and ensure close consultation and communications with these stakeholders in particular.
The work will require engagement with different government ministries and institutions, other UN agencies, other international organisations, donors, national social partners, civil society, beneficiary groups and other relevant stakeholders to be identified.
The process will be informed by relevant M&E frameworks, experience and expertise developed at the global level and to be adjusted to the context.
Duties and responsibilities
Ensure comprehensive stakeholder engagement and participation (at all levels), building on previous stakeholder consultations, the CVN and 2019 Call For Funds.
Organise thematic discussions with all partners on issues of key relevance.
Propose format and programme of further consultations with stakeholder groups, including national and local actors and beneficiaries.
Plan, undertake, guide and follow up stakeholder consultations.
In consultation with the Partners, including the Embassy of the Netherlands, develop and review the RBM approach and the country-specific M&E framework in line with the Partnership M&E framework and in light of the outcomes of previous workshops at international and local levels.
Draft the programme documents, which should contain as a minimum a clear:
Theory of Change (including risks, assumptions and mitigation measures);
Operational risks and mitigation.
Based on the draft programme documents, plan and undertake further stakeholder consultations to validate the draft programme document.
Support the partnership with updates and respond to feedback from the Government of the Netherlands based on stakeholder consultations.
Carry out other relevant tasks that may arise during the contract period.
The consultant is expected to be available between September 2019 and March 2020 to deliver**:**
Inception report - incorporating work plan as per consultations with stakeholder groups to identify viable options for effective programme design by October 2019.
Situation analysis - Desk review and analytical assessment to inform development and design of the programme, based on the Country Vision Note, Year 1 Call for Funds and secondary desk review of existing research and assessment resources, focusing in particular on proposed geographical areas by October 2019.
Programme of consultations with identified stakeholders at national and local levels and regular meetings of the partnership. This will include timely technical and thematic workshops, including theory of change by October-November 2019.
Draft programme document developed based on above and continued partner technical inputs by December 2019.
Final draft programme document validated by key stakeholders by January 2020.
Review final programme document incorporating inputs from Government of the Netherlands (final version to be submitted to the Embassy of the Netherlands in Khartoum by 1 March 2020) by February 2020.
Respond to the comments of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, if any, following the submission in March 2020.
Desired background qualifications, experience and competences
The consultant will be expected to have the following qualifications and skills:
1. Education (knowledge)
- Post-graduate qualification in relevant field (social science, social policy, economics, development studies, etc.).
10 years of progressive experience in designing and managing complex multi-stakeholder and multi-year programmes. It would be an added advantage if this included in refugee settings.
Experience with Results Based Management training and application.
Experience in coordinating /facilitating development of multiple agency joint programmes.
Experience in and ability to coordinate UN agencies and interact at the professional level with donor representatives and other stakeholders, particularly government (national and local).
Experience working in Africa and experience working in Sudan an asset.
- Current knowledge and understanding of the latest development and evidence on learning/education, skills, employability and employment creation.
3. Skills and competences
Demonstrable analytical and research skills, review and synthesis of data and information.
High level of competency in working with people, drive for results and communication.
Ability to work efficiently and effectively with programme members in various locations and from multiple organizations, including remotely writing and revising proposal documents.
Ability to integrate different experiences, methodologies, and approaches from a diverse range of stakeholders, organizations, and technical experts from multiple sectors.
Excellent oral and written English skills.
Responsibilities and line of reporting
The consultant will be under the supervision of the Partners (based on governance structures yet to be determined). The consultant will be located in Khartoum and will be provided office space in which to complete the assignment.
Timing and duration of contract
Approximately 6 months between September 2019 and March 2020.